Index

Acción Católica (Catholic Action), 17, 140

Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo, 4

alcohol and alcoholism: and Amistad y Vida, 56, 62, 171n2; and Catholicism, 139; and conversion, 123, 127–128, 134; and La Luz del Mundo, 101, 126

Alcoholics Anonymous, 134–135

Amatulli Valente, Flaviano, 118, 175n8, 175n9

American Indian tribes, 21

Amistad y Vida A.C. (Cristianos): axiomatic principles of, 46–48, 50–51, 52; as beneficial sect, 154–155, 162; and Catholic/evangelist relations, 40, 48, 53, 55, 61, 67, 69, 71; and celebration of yearly cycle, 54–58, 62; and community service, 43–44, 47, 49, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 67, 70–72, 152, 154, 155, 171n3; and conversion, 40, 41, 46, 48, 53, 54, 58, 60, 64, 67, 69–71, 121, 125, 142, 143–144, 146; and covenant with God, 49; and creation of organically united group, 47, 85; doctrines of, 27, 41–43, 46, 135, 155; and egalitarianism, 16, 40, 41, 55, 64–65, 73, 125, 153, 154, 165; establishment of, 2, 12, 15, 39–41, 167n1; ethnography of, 3, 19, 52; future of, 67–73, 163; ideational-ideal configuration of, 44; ideology of, 45–53; imperatives for behavior, 51; imperatives to action, 48–50, 51; and interaction among congregants, 47, 50; lack of intermediaries between God and individuals, 48–49, 60, 68–69; La Luz del Mundo compared to, 151–156; membership levels of, 39, 69; nationalism of, 157; optimism of, 46–47, 51, 53, 54, 62–63; perceptions of, 67–73; pragmatic character of, 42, 43–45, 50, 53, 56; and private/individual component, 50, 54, 55–57, 59, 60; and proselytism, 40, 42, 50, 54, 67, 69, 73, 125, 126, 152, 155, 156, 178n4; and public/collective component, 50, 54, 55, 56, 57–58, 171n3; relaxed religious approach of, 40, 46, 49, 171n2; reunions of, 50, 55–56, 63, 69; and role of Jesus Christ, 41, 42, 71–72, 152, 172–173n11; and secular state events, 63; social and kinship aspects of congregation, 61–67, 87, 89, 92, 94, 95, 154, 172n8; social and religious ayuda, 95, 152; statement of purpose, 42, 52; teleology of, 46, 48, 53, 54; theology of, 41–43, 48, 52, 53, 54; as tolerant and liberal, 7, 16, 153, 178n4; and women, 40, 125, 126, 132, 153

anabaptism: and Amistad y Vida, 42, 152; and La Luz del Mundo, 76, 78–79, 152

Annis, Sheldon, 120

anthropology: and distinction between “what is” and “what ought to be,” 45; and ethnography, 20, 22–23, 33, 34; motivational characterization of, 22; and proselytism, 14–15; and religious systems, 164, 167–168n3

Applewhite, Marshall, 38

Arianism, 6

Assembly of God, 12

Australia, 21

Bakker, Jim, 111

Baptist Church, 7, 12, 75, 160

Bastián, Jean, 4–5, 120, 177n1

Bible: and Amistad y Vida, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 55, 152; and Catholicism, 139; and conversion, 122, 127, 131; and La Luz del Mundo, 86, 100, 103–104, 152; and native evangelism, 2, 6–7, 16. See also New Testament; Old Testament

Bitar, Jorge, 39–40, 153

Bitar, Susana, 39–40, 153

Boas, Franz, 21

Boff, Leonardo, 120, 177n1

Bolivia, 134

Bowen, Kurt, 120

Bridges, Julian C., 120

Bruce, Steve A., 177n1

Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE), 21

Calles, Plutarco Elías, 157, 161, 169n6

Calvin, John, 170n2

Cárdenas, Lázaro, 161

Catholic/evangelist relations: and Amistad y Vida, 40, 48, 53, 55, 61, 67, 69, 71; and Catholic counteracting of proselytism, 9, 11, 13–14, 17, 120, 128, 138–142, 156; and Catholic knowledge of individual sects, 12; confrontations in, 8, 9, 11, 18, 68, 141, 168n4, 170n1, 173n3, 175–176n1; and La Luz del Mundo, 80, 81, 84, 86–87, 95, 97, 98, 105–106, 109, 175n8, 176–177n6, 177n7; and nationalistic aspect of native evangelism, 16

Catholicism: anti-Protestant stance of, 8, 9, 11; charismatic movement of, 14, 139; and compadrazgo, 176–177n6; converts’ perceptions of, 123; counteracting proselytism, 9, 11, 13–14, 17, 120, 128, 138–142, 156; folk Catholicism, 12–13, 29, 34, 38, 48, 82, 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 141, 144–145, 147, 163, 164, 165; hierarchy of, 132–133, 137, 141, 144, 145, 147, 148; impersonal ambiance of parish, 96, 122; laissez-faire attitude toward Protestant evangelism, 9, 10, 142; and liberation theology, 137, 139; and Mexico’s government, 17, 18, 169n6; and native evangelism as dissent movements, 1, 2, 6–7; political and economic power of, 158–161, 162, 178n3; pragmatic tenets of, 15; Protestant denominations contrasted with, 6, 8; on Protestant evangelism, 8–9, 167n2; and relationship with state, 119; and sexual abuses, 111, 115; social and kinship traits of, 61, 62, 63–64; and social needs of local congregations, 14, 29, 140, 148–149; and vernacular Mass, 135; and women, 126, 147, 148; and yearly cycle, 99, 122, 147, 177n2

Centro para el Estudio Científico de las Religiones (Center for the Scientific Study of Religions), 112

ceremonialism: and Amistad y Vida, 41, 47, 49, 53, 54–58, 152; and Catholicism, 12, 99, 131, 132, 133, 162, 163; and conversion, 113; and lack of hierarchy in native evangelism, 2; and La Luz del Mundo, 77, 78, 85, 99–105, 152, 153–154

Chamula, Chiapas, 168n4

Chiapas: and confrontations between Catholics and Protestant evangelists, 8, 16, 141, 168n4; and Protestant evangelism, 4; social and economic troubles in, 136

Chile, 121

Christianity: as dissenting sect of Judaism, 71; and evangelism, 35; folk roots of, 72; “heresies” of, 6, 167–168n3; schisms of, 73; and sectarianism, 170n2. See also Catholicism; Protestantism

colonialism, 36, 72

Comonfort, Ignacio, 158

compadrazgo (ritual kinship): and Amistad y Vida, 63–66; and Catholicism, 176–177n6; and La Luz del Mundo, 110–111; and Tlaxcala-Pueblan valley, 172n9

Congregational Church, 75

congregations: and administrative decentralization, 2; and Amistad y Vida, 40, 55, 61–67, 87, 89, 92, 94, 95, 154, 170–171n1, 172n8; and conversion, 123, 124, 128–129; ethnography of, 10, 19, 26–27; and La Luz del Mundo, 77, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85–86, 87, 88–95, 105–111, 153–154, 172n8, 175n7; social needs of local congregations, 14

Constitution of 1857, 160, 161

Constitution of 1917, 161

conversion: and Amistad y Vida, 40, 41, 46, 48, 53, 54, 58, 60, 64, 67, 69–71, 121, 125, 142, 143–144, 146; Catholic reactions to, 120, 138–142; collective conversion, 149–150; and congregations, 123, 124, 128–129; doctrinal considerations, 130–131, 132, 133–138, 144–146, 149, 150; drinking and womanizing as dependent variables in, 127–128; and economic factors, 120, 121, 122, 123, 129, 133–134, 136, 137, 143, 147–150, 177n2; and folk beliefs and practices, 13; forms of, 38, 121–122; and glossolalia, 60; and Indians, 122, 133, 134, 135, 137, 144, 150, 165–166; and La Luz del Mundo, 75, 76, 80, 86, 107, 108, 121, 125, 142; and men, 129, 144–146, 147, 148, 149–150; and Mestizos, 122, 133, 144, 165; and opposition from kinsmen, 126–127, 129; and persona, 28–31, 35; process of, 125, 126, 127, 128–136, 143; profiles of, 143–150; psychological factors of, 123–124, 130, 142–150; and rationalization after the fact, 41, 69, 98, 120, 142; reasons for, 1–2, 26, 29, 71, 82, 85, 107, 113; and reconversion to Catholicism, 82, 120, 127, 130, 141; religious context of, 120, 122, 129, 130–136, 137, 143; and religious pluralism, 120; social and cultural variables of, 120, 121–130, 131, 132–134, 143; and social class, 68–69, 121, 125, 136, 138, 164, 172n10; success of conversion of Catholics, 7, 12–13, 40, 41, 48, 53, 58, 67, 71, 80, 120, 130; and women, 122–123, 125–128, 129, 132, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149–150. See also proselytism

Córdoba, Veracruz: Amistad y Vida in, 39, 40, 55, 57, 153; and conversion, 134; La Luz del Mundo in, 82

Córdoba-Orizaba region: Amistad y Vida in, 40, 58, 166, 170–171n1; Catholic activists in, 164; and Catholic charismatic movement, 139; and Catholic/evangelist relations, 17, 141, 168n4, 170n1, 175–176n1; and conversion, 137, 143, 172n10; ethnography of, 19, 25, 162; kinship system of, 67; La Luz del Mundo in, 85, 102, 106, 156, 166; and modernization, 165; native evangelism in, 2, 7, 15, 34, 169–170n1; Protestant evangelism in, 5, 10–12, 13, 167n2; as region de refugio, 4

Council of Chalcedon, 6

Council of Nicaea, 6, 170n2, 172n11

Cristianos. See Amistad y Vida A.C. (Cristianos)

cult of the saints: and Amistad y Vida, 49, 68–69; and Catholicism, 29, 68–69, 82; costs of, 82, 122, 133; native evangelism’s rejection of, 2, 11, 12, 13, 29, 49

cultural consensus, 23–24, 26, 27

Deiros, Pablo Alberto, 177n1

De la Torre, Renee, 118

De los Reyes, Alfonso, 120

Departmento de Investigaciones Sobre Abusos Religiosos (Investigative Department of Religious Misconduct), 117

deus-ex-machina, 170n2

Díaz, Porfirio, 3, 7–8, 63, 160, 169n6

Diego, Juan, 138

Di Mambro, Joseph, 38

Donatism, 6

Dow, James, 165

Durkheim, Émile, 31

Echeverría Álvarez, Luis, 160

Ecuador, 134

Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN), 141, 168n4

Erdely, Jorge, 112, 117

Escalantes, Paloma, 115

ethnography: analytical or in-depth ethnography, 24, 25, 26–28, 30, 31, 35, 38; and cognitive concept of persona, 28–31, 35; complementing and interpreting quantitative data, 25–26, 28; diachronic and synchronic reasons for, 20–23, 24, 26; and distinction between ideology and structure, 32–34, 45; epistemological foundations of, 31–35; and functionalism, 22, 23, 32; integrational role of, 22, 23; interpretative and explanatory dimensions of, 23–24, 28; of native evangelism, 19–20, 25; salvage ethnography, 21–22; uses of, 24–26

evangelism: appeal of, 130–136, 162–164; defining concept of, 35, 36–37; and religious studies, 112. See also native evangelism; Protestant evangelism

Evans-Pritchard, E. E., 22, 24, 164

Falange, 162

Father Devine sect, 111

Fortín, Veracruz: Amistad y Vida in, 39, 40, 44, 55, 153; congregations of, 10, 19; and conversion, 134; La Luz del Mundo in, 81, 82, 85, 87, 102, 107, 109, 173n1, 173–174n4, 176n5

Fortuny, Patricia, 165

Franco, Francisco, 162

French Revolution, 158, 174–175n6

fundamentalism, 8, 112

Gamio, Manuel, 21

Garma Navarro, Carlos, 120

Garrand-Burnett, Virginia, 177n1

Gaxiola, Manuel J., 120

glossolalia: and Amistad y Vida, 42, 47, 50, 58–61, 171n4, 171n5; and La Luz del Mundo, 76, 102

Gnosticism, 6

González, Eusebio Joaquín (Aarón): connections with political establishment, 81, 107; death of, 75, 102; and exclusivity, 79, 80; and exploitation of rank and file, 83–84; founding of La Luz del Mundo, 74, 75, 103, 105, 116; glorification of, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84–85, 100, 102, 103, 110, 117, 173n2; and hierarchical principle of authority, 88; ideology of, 80, 153; infallibility of, 173n1; Jim Jones compared to, 113; on marriage, 79; and millenarianism, 77; personality profile of, 114; puritanism, 82–83, 96–97; and Santa Cena, 104; teachings of, 76; theological procedures established by, 78–80, 173n1; and tithes, 79; visions of, 74–75

González, Samuel Joaquín: and celebrations of Brother Aarón’s birthday and death day, 102; connections with political establishment, 81, 107, 118; and control of Hermosa Provincia, 83–84; controversies surrounding, 116, 153; and exclusivity, 80; glorification of, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84–85, 100, 101, 103, 104–105, 114, 117, 155, 173n2, 174n4; and millenarianism, 77; and misogyny, 175n9; and monumental temple of Hermosa Provincia, 75; personality profile of, 114–115; and prohibition of compadrazgo, 110–111; and proselytism, 176n5; and puritanism, 96; and Santa Cena, 103; and sexual abuses, 115, 118; teachings of, 76; and theological procedures, 78–80; and tithes, 79

the good, and Amistad y Vida, 46–47, 70–71

Goodman, Felícitas D., 60

Greenleaf, Floyd, 177n1

Guadalajara, Jalisco: and La Luz del Mundo, 75, 78, 153; Protestant evangelism in, 7

Guatemala: La Luz del Mundo in, 3; Protestant evangelism in, 10, 121, 138; social and economic troubles in, 136

Guerrero, 168n4

Herodotus, 20–21

hispanidad (everything Spanish), 162

Hochman, John, 113

Huasteca Potosina, 4

ideational constructs, 167–168n3

Iglesia Apostólica de la Fe en Cristo Jesús, 12

Iglesia Católica Cismática Mexicana, 169n6

Iglesia Cristiana Interdenominal, 12

Iglesia de Bethel, 12

Iglesia de Dios en la República Mexicana, 12

Indian/Mestizo dichotomy, 4, 7, 28, 121, 136, 137

Indians: and conversion, 122, 133, 134, 135, 137, 144, 150, 165–166; and La Luz del Mundo, 106, 176n3; and Ley Lerdo, 159, 178n2; and Mendicant friars, 72, 142; and Protestant evangelism, 7

Ireland, 36

Jehovah’s Witnesses: and Catholic/evangelist relations, 170n1; and conversion, 126, 144, 172n10; doctrines of, 135; lack of political involvement, 107; and native evangelism, 1, 16; and Nestorianism, 167n3; and proselytism, 7, 11, 67, 125, 149, 162, 166; and rituals, 100; and women, 125

Jesuits, 158

Jesus Christ: and Amistad y Vida, 41, 42, 71–72, 152, 172–173n11; and La Luz del Mundo, 76, 78, 80, 84, 152, 155, 173n1

John Paul II (pope), 138, 139, 140

Jones, Jim, 38, 113, 174n5

Juárez, Benito, 158, 160, 161, 169n6

Judaism, 35, 61, 71

Kluckhohn, Clyde, 24

Koresh, David, 38, 174n5

Lalive D’Spinay, Christian, 120

La Luz del Mundo (LLDM): Amistad y Vida compared to, 151–156; and Catholic/evangelist relations, 80, 81, 84, 86–87, 95, 97, 98, 105–106, 109, 175n8, 176–177n6, 177n7; and center/periphery differences, 108, 111, 113, 115, 117, 155, 176n4; and community ambiance, 85–87, 95–98, 108, 109, 111; and conversion, 75, 76, 80, 86, 107, 108, 121, 125, 142; as destructive sect, 38, 83–85, 96, 98, 99, 105, 111–115, 151–152, 153, 154, 155, 162, 174n5; and economic exploitation, 81–82, 83, 84–85, 111, 114, 115, 153, 155, 173n4, 175n8; and economic welfare of members, 17, 82, 86, 87, 95, 152; ethnography of, 3, 19; exclusivity of, 79, 80, 85–87, 104; fiscal scandals within, 17; founding of, 2, 12, 15, 74, 75, 162; future of, 163; growth of, 2–3, 75–76, 98, 156; headquarters of, 75, 78; and Hermosa Provincia, 75, 81–84, 85, 96–97, 101, 102–103, 104, 106, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116–117, 155, 175n7, 175n8; hierarchy of, 16–17, 27, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 88, 96, 107–108, 118, 152–153, 154, 176n4; and homophobia, 96, 153; ideology of, 45, 80–85, 153, 174n5; leadership of, 83, 106, 111, 116–119, 153, 154, 156; membership figures of, 75–76, 98, 116; and misogyny, 96, 97–98, 175n9; nationalism of, 81, 106–107, 157; and nonresidential extended families, 87, 88, 91–92, 94–95, 109, 110; and number 14, 102, 173n2; organization of congregations, 77, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85–86, 105, 153–154; and proselytism, 75, 77, 79, 86, 107, 108, 110, 119, 125, 126, 152, 155–156, 166, 176n5; and puritanism, 82–83, 87, 96–97, 116; and Santa Cena, 78, 87, 102–105, 173n4; sexual scandals within, 2–3, 17, 38, 81, 83, 84–85, 97, 111, 114–115, 116, 117–118, 155, 173n4, 175n8, 177n7; social and kinship aspects of congregation, 87, 88–95, 105–111, 172n8, 175n7; social and religious ayuda, 87, 95–98, 152, 175n7; syntagmatic structure of, 99–105; teleology of, 77, 79–80; as theocracy, 78, 79, 80; theology of, 76–80, 173n1; and tithes, 77, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 111, 114, 117, 173–174n4; values and worldview of, 85–88; and women, 82–83, 96, 97–98, 110, 113, 116, 125, 126, 132, 153, 175n9; and yearly cycle, 76, 87, 99–100, 101, 102, 104

La Malintzi, 15

Las Casas, Bartolomé de, 72

Latin America: Catholicism in, 36, 138, 139; and conversion, 120, 121, 128, 149, 150, 177n1; and native evangelism, 173n3; and Protestant evangelism, 18, 121, 138; secularization in, 14, 134

Lerdo de Tejeda, Sebastián, 158

Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 22, 34

Leyes de Reforma (Reform Laws), 157, 159–160, 169n6

Ley Lerdo, 158–159, 178n2

López Cortés, Eliseo, 120

López Meza, Antonio, 168n4

lower-middle class: and Amistad y Vida, 40, 156; and Catholicism, 8–9, 135, 147; and conversion, 69; and La Luz del Mundo, 95, 106, 156; and Protestant evangelism, 7, 68

Luther, Martin, 170n2

Lutheran Church, 5–6, 160

Malinowski, Bronislaw, 22, 24

Manicheanism, 6

marriage: and Amistad y Vida, 64, 152; and Catholicism, 147; and La Luz del Mundo, 79, 88–89, 108–110, 126, 152

Martin, David, 120, 177n1

Marzal, Manuel M., 118

Mascareñas de los Santos, César, 114

Mascareñas Ruiz, Jorge, 114

Masferrer, Elio, 76, 111, 112–113, 116, 117, 118

Mayers, Robert, 39, 153

mayordomía system, 82, 122, 144

Mestizos: and conversion, 122, 133, 144, 165; and Protestant evangelism, 7. See also Indian/Mestizo dichotomy

Methodist Church, in Tlaxcala-Pueblan valley, 4–6

Mexican Revolution of 1910: and Amistad y Vida, 63; and Catholicism, 159, 160–161; and Eusebio González, 74; and modernization, 131, 163; and Protestant evangelism, 3, 4–5, 8

Mexico: Catholicism counteracting conversion in, 139; and church/state separation, 63, 157, 159, 160; conversion in, 121, 150; ethnography of, 20–21, 23, 32; independence of, 158; media reports of La Luz del Mundo in, 117–119, 177n8; Protestant evangelism in, 138, 160; religious freedom in, 8, 9, 11, 17, 18, 141, 157–158, 160, 161, 169n6; study of religious sects in, 111–115

Mexico City: Amistad y Vida in, 39; Protestant evangelism in, 7; and social class, 171n6, 172n7

Meyer, Jean A., 118, 161

Michoacán state, 11

Middle Ages, estate system of stratification, 174n6

middle class: and Amistad y Vida, 7, 16, 40, 53, 58, 66, 67, 68, 156; and Catholicism, 12, 68, 69, 135, 140–141; and conversion, 133; and La Luz del Mundo, 106; and Protestant evangelism, 7, 8, 12–13

millenarianism, 76, 77, 168n5

Ministry of the Interior, Department of Religious Affairs, 81

modernization: and Amistad y Vida, 43, 53, 65; and conversion, 125, 131; and evangelism, 164, 165; and French Revolution, 158; and individualism, 163; and La Luz del Mundo, 85; and Ley Lerdo, 178n2; and return to primitive Christianity, 72

Mohammed, Prophet, 78

Mohammedanism, 35

Monophysitism, 6, 78

Monterrey, Nuevo León: and La Luz del Mundo, 74, 75; Protestant evangelism in, 7

moral code of behavior: and Amistad y Vida, 41, 43, 44, 47–48, 53, 61, 152; Bible as source of, 2; and Catholicism, 132; and La Luz del Mundo, 101, 152

Morgan, Lewis Henry, 21

Mormons: and conversion, 125; doctrines of, 135; missions of, 3; and proselytism, 7, 11, 67, 125, 162, 166; and women, 125

Murdock, George Peter, 22–23

native evangelism: belief systems of, 32–33, 34; and conversion, 122, 125, 146; differences among sects, 2; as dissent movements, 1, 2; ethnography of, 19–20, 25; exclusivity of, 6–7; as extension of Protestant evangelism, 2; future of, 162–166; growth of, 161–162; ideology of, 32–33, 34; lack of hierarchy in ceremonialism, 2; lack of hierarchy in ritualism, 2; La Luz del Mundo compared to, 79, 80; as mixture of Catholicism and Protestant evangelism, 169–170n1; nationalist component of, 15–16, 18, 81, 157, 173n3; origins of, 1, 15; perceptions of La Luz del Mundo, 86; persona of, 28–31, 163; prophets of, 6–7; and proselytism, 131; Protestant evangelism compared to, 1–2, 6–7, 18, 169–170n1; Protestant evangelism’s interrelationship with, 156–162; and reactions against Catholicism, 38; theologies and teleologies of, 6–7; and women, 132. See also Amistad y Vida A.C. (Cristianos); La Luz del Mundo (LLDM)

Nazarenes, 12

neolocality, 61, 66

Nestorianism, 6, 167n3

new religious movements (NRMs), 113

New Testament, 41, 43, 44

Nicaragua, La Luz del Mundo in, 3

Nutini, H., 9–10, 16, 172n7, 172n9, 176n2

Old Testament, 41

original sin, 76

Orizaba, Veracruz: Amistad y Vida in, 55; La Luz del Mundo in, 82, 102; and Protestant evangelism, 5–6, 10

Orthodox schism (1054), 170n2

Paloma, Margaret M., 120

Partido Acción Nacional (PAN), 63, 107, 169n6

Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD), 63

Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), 63, 81, 107, 118

patrineolocality, 88–92

Pelagianism, 6

Pentecostalism: and conversion, 122, 123–124, 125, 126, 127, 164, 172n10; doctrines of, 135; egalitarianism of, 27, 77; and evangelical ecumenism, 68; and glossolalia, 58, 59–60, 171n5; as model for La Luz del Mundo, 76, 83; and native evangelism, 1, 16, 170n1; and proselytism, 5–6, 7, 11, 67, 125, 166; and rituals, 100; and women, 125

Peru, 134

Philippines, 36

Pitarch, Pedro, 28

Poewe, Karla, 164

Porfiriato, 160–161

poverty and the poor: and Catholicism, 136, 137, 140, 141; and conversion, 141, 164; and La Luz del Mundo, 86, 95, 173n4; and Protestant evangelicals, 68, 138

Powell, John, 21

preaching: and conversion, 134–135, 178n3; and native evangelism, 2, 13

Predicadores Laicos (Lay Preachers), 140

Presbyterian Church, 160

proselytism: and Amistad y Vida, 40, 42, 50, 54, 67, 69, 73, 125, 126, 152, 155, 156, 178n4; Catholicism counteracting, 9, 11, 13–14, 17, 120, 128, 138–142, 156; growth of, 10; and interaction with prospective converts, 122, 129, 130; and La Luz del Mundo, 75, 77, 79, 86, 107, 108, 110, 119, 125, 126, 155–156, 176n5; and Protestant evangelism, 4, 5, 9, 12–14, 67, 125, 131, 149, 152, 155, 162, 168n5, 178n1; and women, 125–126, 128. See also conversion

Protestant evangelism: and conversion, 120, 121, 122, 125, 146, 172n10; differences among sects, 2, 36, 157; historical considerations of, 3–9; La Luz del Mundo compared to, 79, 80; nationalism of, 81; native evangelism compared to, 1–2, 6–7, 16, 169–170n1; native evangelism’s interrelationship with, 156–162; and perceptions of Amistad y Vida, 67, 68, 71; and perceptions of La Luz del Mundo, 80, 81, 84–85, 86; persona of, 163; and preaching, 134–135, 178n3; and proselytism, 4, 5, 9, 12–14, 67, 125, 131, 149, 152, 155, 162, 168n5, 178n1; and rejection of cult of the saints, 49; and spiritual simplicity, 135–136; statistics on, 3–4, 10, 14, 18, 161, 167n2; and women, 125, 132. See also specific sects

Protestantism: in Europe, 36; and individualism, 131, 163; mainstream denominations, 5–8, 12, 36, 37, 138; and Reformation, 36, 73; rise of, 170n2; and sects, 37–38, 112–113. See also specific denominations

Puebla, Puebla: Amistad y Vida in, 39; Catholicism in, 14; congregations of, 10; Protestant evangelism in, 7; revolt in, 159

Quiroga, Vasco de, 72

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., 22, 23

Redfield, Robert, 21

regiones de refugio (regions of refuge), 4

religious freedom: in Latin America, 14; in Mexico, 8, 9, 11, 17, 18, 141, 157–158, 160, 161, 169n6

Revista Académica para el Estudio de las Religiones, 111, 112–115, 116

ritualism: and Amistad y Vida, 41, 47, 49, 53, 54–58, 152; and Catholicism, 12, 99, 132, 133, 134, 135, 147–148, 162, 163; and conversion, 113, 147–148; and lack of hierarchy in native evangelism, 2; and La Luz del Mundo, 77, 78, 85, 99–105, 152, 153–154

Rivera, Pedro, 120

Robichaux, David L., 65

Roelofs, Gerard, 177n1

rural areas: and Amistad y Vida, 40, 91, 156; and Catholicism, 140, 147, 163; and conversion, 121, 122, 123, 127–128, 133, 134, 136, 137, 147, 148, 149, 164; and cult of the saints, 82; and La Luz del Mundo, 91, 105, 106, 109, 155–156; and native evangelism, 19; and proselytism, 138; and Protestant evangelism, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 68, 151

Russell, Bertrand, 57, 164, 167–168n3

Sabellianism, 6

Sahagún, Bernardino de, 20–21

San Bernardino Contla, Tlaxcala, 172n9, 175n7

Sandstrom, Alan, 165

Schoolcraft, Henry, 21

secularization: and conversion, 131, 133–134, 137–138, 149; and individualism, 163; in Latin America, 14, 134; and Ley Lerdo, 178n2; of monasteries, 160

Seventh-Day Adventists: and Catholic/evangelist relations, 170n1; and conversion, 122, 144; doctrines of, 135; and native evangelism, 1, 16; and proselytism, 3, 7, 11, 125, 149; and women, 125

Sierra de Puebla, 4, 9–10

sinarquismo (synarchism), 162

social class: and Amistad y Vida, 40–41, 53, 61, 68; and Catholicism, 12, 17, 61; in central Veracruz, 176n2; and conversion, 68–69, 121, 125, 136, 138, 164, 172n10; and ethnography, 25; and extended family, 61, 171n6; and La Luz del Mundo, 82, 95, 106; and Protestant evangelism, 7, 8, 12–13, 68. See also lower-middle class; middle class; poverty and the poor; upper class; upper-middle class; working class

Spain, 35–36, 72, 158, 162

speaking in tongues. See glossolalia

Stoll, David, 120, 177n1

subjectivity of values, 167–168n3

Tacitus, 20–21

Tarascan Indians, 72

televangelism, 8

tierra fría regions, 4

tithes, and La Luz del Mundo, 77, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 111, 114, 117, 173–174n4

Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: Catholicism in, 14; congregations of, 10, 19; cultural loss in, 21; ethnography of, 25; La Luz del Mundo in, 82, 85, 102, 103

Tlaxcala-Pueblan valley: Amistad y Vida in, 166, 170–171n1; Catholic activists in, 164; and Catholic charismatic movement, 139; and Catholic/evangelist relations, 17, 141, 168n4, 170n1; and compradrazgo, 172n9; and conversion, 137, 143, 172n10, 178n3; ethnographic survey of, 9–10, 19, 162; La Luz del Mundo in, 106, 156, 166; Methodist schools in, 4–5; and modernization, 165; native evangelism in, 7, 15, 34, 169–170n1; Protestant evangelism in, 11–12

Trinitarianism: and Amistad y Vida, 42, 68, 152; and La Luz del Mundo, 76, 152

Tzeltal-Tzotzil region of Chiapas, 4

upper class: and Catholicism, 12, 69, 135, 144; and conversion, 133; and Protestant evangelism, 7, 8, 12

upper-middle class: and Catholicism, 68, 69, 140–141; and La Luz del Mundo, 106

urban areas: and Amistad y Vida, 40–41, 62, 68, 91, 156; and Catholicism, 140, 147, 163; and conversion, 121, 122, 123, 127–128, 132–133, 135, 136–138, 145, 147, 148–149, 164; of Córdoba-Orizaba region, 19; ethnography of, 25; and kinship systems, 62, 172n7; and La Luz del Mundo, 91, 106, 107, 155–156, 176n3; and native evangelism, 19; and proselytism, 138; and Protestant evangelism, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 68, 151; and women, 144

Valenzuela, Carmen, 74

Valley of Mexico, La Luz del Mundo in, 106

Warner, William L., 25

Weber, Max, 37, 132

Willems, Emilio, 120

women: and Amistad y Vida, 40, 125, 126, 132, 153; and conversion, 122–123, 125–128, 129, 132, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149–150; and La Luz del Mundo, 82–83, 96, 97–98, 110, 113, 116, 125, 126, 132, 153, 175n9; and proselytism, 125–126, 128; traditional beliefs of, 144, 147, 178n5

working class: and Amistad y Vida, 53, 68; and Catholicism, 8–9, 147; and conversion, 69, 133, 136; and La Luz del Mundo, 82, 95, 106, 110, 156, 176n3; and Protestant evangelism, 7, 8–9, 68

Xalapa, Veracruz, Amistad y Vida in, 39–40

Zapata Novoa, Juan, 120

Zedillo Ponce de León, Ernesto, 118, 169n6

Zongolica, and La Luz del Mundo, 105